unit covers procurement, import, export and international trade in several products including: crude oil, condensate, LPG, petroleum and petrochemical products, chemical solvents, crude palm oil, refined palm oil, palm kernel shells and other commodities.


Crude Oil
After crude oil is removed from the ground, it is sent to a refinery where different parts of the crude oil are separated into useable petroleum products. These petroleum products include gasoline, distillates such as diesel fuel and heating oil, jet fuel, petrochemical feedstocks, waxes, lubricating oils, and asphalt.
Petroleum products are products derived from crude oil (e.g., when processed in oil refineries). This products category includes (Refinery gas, Ethane, Liquified petroleum gas (LPG), Gasoline (Motor Gasoline), Aviation gasoline, other kerosene, Gasoline type jet fuel, Kerosene type jet fuel, Naphtha, Gas/diesel oil (automotive diesel and heating gas/diesel oil), Fuel oil, White Spirit and SBP, Lubricants, Bitumen, Petroleum coke, Paraffin Waxes, Other Oil Products)
Petroleum can be used to make various products ranging from rocket fuel to plastics and paints. Here are the most popular ones available on the market: 1. Ethylene (This substance is commonly used to make different types of films and plastics. It can be found in cleaning agents such as detergents as well as lubricants for various mechanical components such as industrial valves.) 2. Benzene (Benzene is very popular in the gasoline industry, but it can also be used to make nylons which are helpful in the packaging industry. Certain nylon fibers are also used to make clothes.) 3. Medical resins (Petroleum can also be used to make resins used in the medical industry. Some of these resins can purify drugs and others are used to create different types of treatments, especially for those with AIDS or cancer.) 4. Medical Plastics (The healthcare industry requires a lot of disposable products made from plastic such as bottles, medical syringes, etc. Petroleum can be used to create such plastics in various shapes and sizes.) 5. Food Preservatives (Different types of petrochemical products can be used in the food industry to create preservatives. These substances prolong the shelf life of foods stored in cans and bags. Some ingredients found in candies and food colorings are also made from various types of petrochemical products to enhance their flavor and taste.) 6. Cosmetics (Petrochemical products are usually used to create a wide variety of household products such as perfumes, cosmetics, makeup products, aftershaves, etc. Shampoos and hair dyes also contain petrochemical products in various quantities. If you use wax for your hair or beard, it has been created using petroleum derivatives.) 7. Fertilizers (Certain plants, vegetables or flowers require fertilizers to help them grow quicker and remain healthy. A plethora of fertilizers and pesticides contain petrochemical products in their content.) 8. Carpets (Most carpets that you can find in a household is manufactured using multiple petrochemical products. These products are intended to add color to the carpet as well as strengthen the fibers.) 9. Safety Glass (Tempered or safety glass is much tougher than regular glass and it’s used in residential and commercial buildings. It keeps thieves at bay as well as protecting certain perimeters such as pools against pets or small kids. Safety glass is made using petrochemical products for enhanced strength and durability.) 10. Crayons and Markers (The crayons you are probably using to draw on paper or a magnetic board contain petrochemical substances. These substances are used to add color and maybe make the ink resistant to UV rays. This applies to all kinds of crayons and markers, whether we talk about the ones used by kids or by engineers in meeting rooms.)


Crude Oil
  • Light: Light crude oil is liquid petroleum that has a low density and flows freely at room temperature. It has a low viscosity, low specific gravity and high API gravity due to the presence of a high proportion of light hydrocarbon fractions. It generally has a low wax content.
  • Heavy: Heavy crude oil (or extra heavy crude oil) is highly-viscous oil that cannot easily flow from production wells under normal reservoir conditions. It is referred to as “heavy” because its density or specific gravity is higher than that of light crude oil.
Petroleum Products
  • Condensate: Condensate is a mixture of light liquid hydrocarbons, similar to a very light (high API) crude oil. It is typically separated out of a natural gas stream at the point of production (field separation) when the temperature and pressure of the gas is dropped to atmospheric conditions.
  • Gasoil: Gas oil comes from crude oil, the crude oil that is pumped out of the ground is a black liquid, known as petroleum. Depending on the way that the crude oil is distilled, a variety of fuels can be made.
  • Naphtha (Light & Heavy): One source distinguishes by boiling point: Light naphtha is the fraction boiling between 30 °C and 90 °C and consists of molecules with 5–6 carbon atoms. Heavy naphtha boils between 90 °C and 200 °C and consists of molecules with 6–12 carbon atoms.
  • Fuel Oil (280 & 380 CST): Oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains, particularly alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics. The term Fuel Oil is also used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil, heavier than gasoline and naphtha.
  • Gasoline: refined petroleum used as fuel for internal combustion engines; petrol.
petrochemical product
  • Ethylene: It is a colorless, flammable gas having a sweet taste and odor. Natural sources of ethylene include both natural gas and petroleum; it is also a naturally occurring hormone in plants, in which it inhibits growth and promotes leaf fall, and in fruits, in which it promotes ripening.
  • HDPE/LLDPE/MDPE/XLPE/UHMW: LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene) has the most excessive branching. This causes the low density to have a less compact molecular structure which is what makes it less dense. It has a density of 0.91-0.925g/cm3.LLDPE (Linear Low-Density Polyethylene) has a significant number of short branches. Because it has shorter and more branches its chains are able slide against each other upon elongation without becoming entangled like LPDE which has long branching chains that would get caught on each other. This gives LLDPE higher tensile strength and higher impact and puncture resistance than the LDPE. It has a density of 0.91-0.94g/cm3.MDPE (Medium Density Polyethylene) has a little less branching than the HDPE. It is less notch sensitive then HDPE and has better stress cracking resistance. It has a density range of 0.926 – 0.94 g/cm3HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) has minimal branching of its’ polymer chains. Because it is denser it is more rigid and less permeable than the LDPE. It has a density of 0.941-0.965g/cm3.XLPE (Crosslinked Polyethylene) is high density polyethylene which has covalent bonds between connecting its polymer chains. These bonds are caused by using heat plus chemicals or radiation and they help to form 3-dimensional polymers with high molecular weights. These bonds tie the polymers together and lengthening the polymer chains giving it better physical properties. The molecular structure that is formed by crosslinking provides superior stress cracking, improved toughness, stiffness, and chemical resistance compared to the HDPE.UHMW (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene) has extremely long chains, with molecular weight numbering in the millions (usually between 2 to 6 million). In general, HDPE molecules have between 700 and 1,800 monomer units per molecule, whereas UHMW molecules tend to have 100,000 to 250,000 monomers each. The chains of UHMW align in the same direction. The bonds between the chains are not very strong however, because they are so long there are more bonds holding it together then polyethylene with shorter chains. These long chains give UHMW high tensile strength. The longer chains serve to transfer load more effectively to the polymer backbone by strengthening intermolecular interactions. This causes the material to be very tough and gives it the highest impact strength of the polyethylene’s. It has a density of 0.928-0.941 g/cm3.
  • Butane/Propane: Both propane and butane are both liquid petroleum gases (LPGs). They are both flammable hydrocarbon gases and byproducts of natural gas processing. Propane and butane also both produce carbon dioxide, water, carbon monoxide and soot when combusted. They each can be used to fuel vehicles and heating stoves.
  • Polyethylene/Polypropylene/EVA/TPV/PVC/PS/EPDM/Etc.: Polyethylene (There are three types of resins by density, LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE. Among these products, LLDPE includes the Higher Alpha-Olefin resins and POP/POE(Plastomer/Elastomer) produced in the metallocene process, and HDPE has various specialty grades including HMWPE.), Polypropylene (It is classified by molecular structure, Homopolymer, Impact Copolymer, and Random Co (Ter)-polymer. In these days most of manufacturers are aiming the selective grades for general purpose to secure cost competitiveness and the respective producers are building up their own domain.), EVA (Ethylene Vinyl-Acetate Monomer) (There are various spectrum of the product’s by VA contents, and we have enormous supply pool of this product.), TPV (Thermo-Plastic Vulcanization) (This is a dynamically cured thermoplastic elastomer(TPE) made of PP and EPDA which provides an excellent combination of mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties expected of conventional thermoset rubber.), PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride) (It is available for two types of PVC by production process. One is ‘Straight Resin’ which is just produced in common process including homo/co/ter-polymers. The other one is ‘Paste Resin’ which is used as an ingredient for a wide range of processed goods.), PS/EPS (polystyrene/Expandable Polystyrene) (There are several types of products including GPPS, HIPS, High Performance PS, PS Compounds, EPS, and Energy Saving EPS.), EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Dien Monomer) (This is a high value-added synthetic rubber that possesses outstanding resistance to foul weather, heat and corrosive ozone so that mainly used in automotive components.)
  • Ammonia: Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH₃. A stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a color less gas with a distinct pungent smell.
  • Urea: Urea (CH4N2O), also popularly known as Carbamide, is the diamide form of carbonic acid. Urea is widely used as a fertilizer, a feed supplement, and a starting material in the manufacture of drugs and plastics. It is a colorless substance existing in the crystalline form, which melts at 132.7°C (271° F) and decomposes even before the Urea boiling point.
  • Methanol: Methanol — the simplest alcohol (CH3OH) — is a chemical building block for hundreds of everyday products, including plastics, paints, car parts and construction materials. Methanol also is a clean energy resource used to fuel cars, trucks, buses, ships, fuel cells, boilers and cook stoves.
  • Sulfur: Sulfur is commonly used to create sulfuric acid, which is used in a number of different industries. Specifically, sulfuric acid is used to make fertilizers and lead-acid batteries.[2] As well, sulfur is used in the production or inorganic chemicals, matches, explosives, cement, and glass.
  • Ethane: Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula C ₂H ₆. At standard temperature and pressure, ethane is a colorless, odorless gas. Like many hydrocarbons, ethane is isolated on an industrial scale from natural gas and as a petrochemical by-product of petroleum refining.
  • SBS/SB/LCBR: The SBS/SB/LCBR (Rubber) Unit is defined as a Batch Plant based on Polymers Europa technology, producing Styrene/Butadiene block copolymers (SBS), Low-Cis Butadiene Rubber (LCBR) and Styrene/Butadiene copolymers (SB), to be built
  • Benzene: Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C₆H₆. The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a planar ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each. Because it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon.
  • Liquid fuel: Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container. It is the fumes of liquid fuels that are flammable instead of the fluid.
  • P-xylene/O-xylene: O-xylene and P-xylene is that O-xylene contains two methyl groups attached to the benzene ring at adjacent substituent positions, whereas P-xylene contains two methyl groups attached to the benzene ring at opposite substituent positions.
  • Aromatics/Ethyl benzene: Ethylbenzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that occurs naturally in petroleum and is a component of aviation and automotive fuels. It is used as a solvent and in the production of synthetic rubber and styrene.
  • Olefin/Propylene oxide: Most propylene oxide is used as an intermediate in the production of polyether polyols for polyurethane foams, and in the production of propylene glycol for unsaturated polyester resins. Minor quantities are used for sterilizing medical equipment and for fumigating foodstuffs.
  • Butadiene/Raffinate: Raffinate 1 is a chemical building block used in the manufacture of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and diisobutylene (DIB). MTBE is a liquid added to petroleum to reduce emissions, and DIB is an intermediate in the production of alcohols and solvents.
  • Bitumen: Bitumen is commonly used to build highways, motorways and rail networks. Bitumen has excellent water-proofing properties and is widely used for making roofing products along with a range of other household and industrial applications, from emulsion paints to sound-proofing


Discovery of oil

Actually, the first oil had been discovered by the Chinese in 600 B.C. and transported in pipelines made from bamboo.
However, Colonel Drake’s heralded discovery of oil in Pennsylvania in 1859 and the Spindletop discovery in Texas in 1901 set the stage for the new oil economy.
Petroleum was much more adaptable and flexible than coal. Additionally, the kerosene that was refined originally from crude provided a reliable and relatively inexpensive alternative to “coal oils” and whale oil for fueling lamps.
Most of the other products were discarded.
With the technological breakthroughs of the 20th century, oil emerged as the preferred energy source. The key drivers of that transformation were the electric light bulb and the automobile.
Automobile ownership and electricity demand grew exponentially and, with them, the oil demand.
By 1919, gasoline sales exceeded those of kerosene. Oil-powered ships, trucks and tanks, and military airplanes in World War I proved the role of oil as not only a strategic energy source, but also a critical military asset.
Prior to the 1920s, the natural gas that was produced along with oil was burned (or flared) as a waste by-product. Eventually, gas began to be used as fuel for industrial and residential heating and power.
As its value was realized, natural gas became a prized product in its own right.

History of the petroleum industry

While the local use of oil goes back many centuries, the modern petroleum industry along with its outputs and modern applications are of a recent origin. Petroleum’s status as a key component of politics, society, and technology has its roots in the coal and kerosene industry of the late 19th century. One of the earliest instances of this is the refining of paraffin from crude oil. Abraham Gesner, developed a process to refine a liquid fuel (which he would later call kerosene) from coal, bitumen, and oil shale, it burned more cleanly and was cheaper than whale oil. James Young in 1847 noticed a natural petroleum seepage when he distilled a light thin oil suitable for use as lamp oil, at the same time obtaining a thicker oil suitable for lubricating machinery. The world’s first refineries and modern oil wells were established in the mid-19th century. While petroleum industries developed in several countries during the nineteenth century, the two giants were the United States and the Russian Empire, specifically that part of it that today forms the territory of independent Azerbaijan. Together, these two countries produced 97% of the world’s oil over the course of the nineteenth century.
The use of the internal combustion engine for automobiles and trucks at the turn of the 20th century was a critical factor in the explosive growth of the industry in the United States, Europe, the Middle East, and later the rest of the world. When diesel fuel replaced steam engines in warships, control of oil supplies became a factor in military strategy—and played a key role in World War II. After the dominance of coal waned in the mid-1950s, oil received significant media coverage and its importance in modern economies increased greatly, being a major factor in several energy crises.
The concern of oil being run out has brought new developments to light such as commercial-scale fracking and the increasing usage of cleaner energy. In the 20th century issues of air pollution led to government regulation. In the early 21st century environmental issues regarding global warming from oil and gas (in addition to coal) makes the industry politically controversial.

Oil in everyday life

Commerce Siam Petroleum: Although the major use of petroleum is for fuel, and petroleum and natural gas are often employed to generate electricity, there are many other uses. Commerce Siam Petroleum.
Vehicles: When thinking of oil, we immediately think of fuel to keep our cars running. However, oil is found in many car parts, including car seats, tires, and bumpers.
Construction: Oil and gas are essential for construction materials such as paint, caulking, roofing shingles, asphalt, and pipes. Moreover, using products derived from petroleum allows for a safer work environment for construction workers, providing them with hard hats, safety goggles, and other equipment. They also allow for more durable projects, with the use of protective coatings and waterproofing.
Clothing: The most commonly manufactured fibers are petroleum-based, such as nylon, polyester, acrylic, and spandex. Fabrics and materials created from petroleum keep us dry and warm in cold weather and cool in hot weather.
Accessories: Many everyday accessories are derived from various plastics, such as handbags, sunglasses, phone cases, jewelry, and many others. All of these come from petroleum.
Fuels: Fuels are essential in our modern lives. They allow us to cook our foods, heat or cool our housing, and make high-speed land, sea, and air transportation possible.
Household: We might not realize it, but in our homes, we are surrounded by products containing oil and gas derivatives, including cooking tools, domestic appliances, and cleaning products.
Beauty: Some beauty products are derived from petroleum, such as nail polish, perfumes, some make-up, and hair colorings. Some products used daily, such as soap, toothbrushes, and shampoo, are also made from oil.
Medical: Many of the medical equipment used today which are life-saving devices are made from oil. Not only are heart valves and artificial limbs made from petroleum, but also many of the cleaning and safety products medical personnel use. Aspirins and other pharmaceuticals also contain petroleum.
Furniture: Most of our furniture has some components derived from oil. This is true for any synthetic furniture, as well as furniture containing an oil finish.
Petroleum: Petroleum can be found in many types of sporting equipment: surfboards, basketballs, and skate wheels, to name but a few. Many times, the materials derived from oil and gas used in sporting equipment also contribute to the safety of the players.
Electronics: Most electronics, from TVs to computers and cell phones, contain plastics. In some cases, these plastics prevent any safety hazards. Electronics are now indispensable to our daily lives, and oil and gas play a central role in making this possible.
Office: Our office spaces are filled with oil-derived materials which help us in our everyday work and enable us to deliver the best products: all electronics, most furniture, and even printer ink all contain petroleum.
Toys: Many of the toys children play with are made from oil-based plastics. Legos, dolls, frisbees, crayons and markers, and balloons are all made from or with plastic components, as do many other childhood items such as car seats or buggies.
Agriculture: For the agriculture industry to run smoothly, it uses various fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides to protect the products from invasive plants or insects. Many of these products contain petroleum in some fashion.

Commerce Siam Petroleum

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Commerce Siam Petroleum

unit covers procurement, import, export and international trade in several products including: crude oil, condensate, LPG, petroleum and petrochemical products, chemical solvents, crude palm oil, refined palm oil, palm kernel shells and other commodities.


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