A Power of Attorney (POA) is an instrument which grants authority for one person to act on someone else’s behalf. The person giving the authority is called the Principal or Grantor, while that who is given the authority is called the Agent or Attorney-in-Fact.
In most countries, a Notary Public is known as an official who is licensed by the State to perform functions such as the authentication of signatures or documents, and the witnessing of affidavits or statements of persons under oath. Notarization of a document is important as the act of notarization itself creates a guarantee on the authenticity of the document, or to the act of the signatories to the instrument.
Private investigation helps ordinary people, business organizations, government institutions, and industrial leaders reduce the risks they face every day and give them the means to make a more informed decision in the future.
Most laws are codified and, unlike common law jurisdictions, the courts are not bound by previous decisions. Stare decisis or compliance with former decisions of the Supreme Court is not mandatory, but in practice, Supreme Court decisions generally have a persuasive effect in the)
– Divorce: Divorce in the dissolution of marriage or the bonds of matrimony which usually entails the canceling of the legal responsibilities and duties of the married couple ruled under the Civil and Commercial Code.
– Torts: Tort law is a body of law that addresses and provides remedies for civil wrongs not arising out of contractual obligations
– Child Custody: child custody issue always arises when spouses having children are divorcing or when spouses decide to live separately. Additionally, the child custody is often an issue for an unmarried couple who has children born out of marriage.
– Medical Malpractice: Law provides that claims for medical malpractice may be filed in courts. Such claims have their basis in law as liability for wrongful acts.
– Debt Collection: A loan of money contract is known as a “loan of consumption”, a contract whereby the lender transfers to the borrower the ownership of a certain quantity of property which is “consumed” by the borrower. The borrower, in return, agrees to return property “of the same kind, quality and quantity.” Note, such a contract only becomes complete upon delivery of the property.
– Mediation: Mediation, like Arbitration, can be conducted in both in court and out of court settings.
– Personal Injury Claims: Law provides that claims for compensation as a result of personal injury may be filed in the courts.
– Anti-Money Laundering: In the light of the proliferation of illegal activities involving large sums of money, Courts legislative body has implemented a comprehensive anti-money laundering law.
– Fraud: Fraud cases come under both civil and criminal complaints. However, when it comes to criminal cases, the complainants are required to provide a higher degree of proof to make their case stronger as compared to the proof that they might have to present in a civil suit. Fraud is used as an umbrella term and includes various sub-categories under the criminal system of Courts.
– Drugs: Provisions for drug-related offences are contained in a raft of laws variously defined in the Measure for Suppressing Narcotic Offenders as being ‘laws governing narcotics and laws governing active materials which have an active effect on the mind and the nerves.
– Extradition Requests: The Extradition now applies to all extradition proceedings. It must be noted that the Act is subject to the provisions of any treaties concerning extradition between the governments or any other international agency.
– Arbitration: Resort to court action is a common approach to dispute resolution in both the private and commercial sectors. With the influx of joint public and private investments, new businesses, and private property purchases, seen an inevitable rise in the volume of litigation. The additional strain on an already overburdened judicial system has meant that disputes can often take years to reach a conclusion.
– Labor Court: The labor sector is a dynamic segment in the economic structure. As businesses flourished, the workforce likewise increased in figures. Inevitable, the courts saw an escalation in the number of labor disputes.
– Trade Disputes: Foreigners, both natural or legal entities (juristic persons) may enter into contracts and establish contractual relationships with other nationals. The place where the obligations of the contract are to be discharged may be the country of residence of any such foreigner, and the employees of the parties carrying out the obligations may be mainly non-native who do not reside in country.
– Intellectual Property: Intellectual property rights are protected by the granting of patents and the registration of trademarks (including service marks, collective marks and certification marks). In addition, the law protects certain types of work as defined in the Copyright Act.
Code of Ur-Nammu
when most people talk about the first set of laws, they often point to the Hammurabi Babylon Codes, as this is what most of us were taught in school, But the lesser known Code of Ur-Nammu (c. 2100–2050 BCE) predates Hammurabi’s Code (1754 BCE). From Mesopotamia, Ur-Nammu’s codes were written in Sumerian and are the oldest known written laws.
This code of laws was very similar to Hammurabi’s, and be warned, they were brutal. Here are a few of them:
• If a man commits a murder, that man must be killed.
• If a man commits a robbery, he will be killed.
• If a man commits a kidnapping, he is to be imprisoned and pay 15 shekels of silver.
• If a slave marries a slave, and that slave is set free, he does not leave the household.
• If a slave marries a native (i.e. free) person, he/she is to hand the firstborn son over to his owner.
• If a man violates the right of another and deflowers the virgin wife of a young man, they shall kill that male.
• If the wife of a man followed after another man and he slept with her, they shall slay that woman, but that male shall be set free.
There are 32 codes in a total of the Code of Ur-Nammu.
The next oldest written set of laws known to us is the Code of Hammurabi. He was the king of Babylon between 1792 BC and 1758 BC. Hammurabi is said to have been handed these laws by Shamash, the God of Justice. The laws were carved on huge stone slabs and placed all over the city so that people would know about them. Judges were appointed to see that they were obeyed.
This is an example of the philosophy that influenced their law making: ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth’. Whatever was done to the victim, then the aggressor would be repaid in a similar fashion.
The most detailed legal code of any of the civilizations was that of the Romans. This was first drawn up in 450 BC by the magistrates and was called the Twelve Tables. All Roman citizens were expected to know the Twelve Tables, which included laws such as:
• When anyone makes a formal promise or sells a property, then according to law, his promise must be carried out.
• If anyone sings abusive songs about somebody else, he shall be put to death.
• If anyone breaks somebody else’s limb and does not apologize, then the other man can break the first man’s limb in return.
Whenever people had legal problems, they would ask for an opinion from the jurists who studied the laws. These opinions were written down and collected to form part of the law.
According to Roman law, people were considered to be innocent until proven guilty. Lawyers would present their case to a jury consisting of 32 men, who would decide on the punishment to be imposed. Over the centuries, many changes and additions were made to the laws as the Romans extended their rule to the countries they conquered. Eventually, a uniform legal code was introduced for the whole of the Roman Empire. This became the model for the first modern code of laws; many of our laws are based on those of ancient Rome.